Skip to main content



  1. Schutten MM, Knoblaugh S, Salas E, Edmondson E, Bienzle D, Cossic B, Everitt J, Saravanan C, Schmidt S, Schumacher V, Zimmerman K. Letter to the Editor Regarding "Pathology Informatics Education Committee of the American College of Veterinary Pathologists (ACVP)". Toxicol Pathol. 2021 Jun;49(4):709-710. doi: 10.1177/0192623320962427. Epub 2020 Oct 12. PubMed PMID: 33043872.

  2. Thies KA, Cole MW, Schafer RE, Spehar JM, Richardson DS, Steck SA, Das M, Lian AW, Ray A, Shakya R, Knoblaugh SE, Timmers CD, Ostrowski MC, Chakravarti A, Sizemore GM, Sizemore ST. The small G-protein RalA promotes progression and metastasis of triple-negative breast cancer. Breast Cancer Res. 2021 Jun 12;23(1):65. doi: 10.1186/s13058-021-01438-3. PMID: 34118960; PMCID: PMC8196523.

  3. Persaud AK, Nair S, Rahman MF, Raj R, Weadick B, Nayak D, McElroy C, Shanmugam M, Knoblaugh S, Cheng X, Govindarajan R. Facilitative lysosomal transport of bile acids alleviates ER stress in mouse hematopoietic precursors. Nat Commun. 2021 Feb 23;12(1):1248. doi: 10.1038/s41467-021-21451-6. PubMed PMID: 33623001; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC7902824.

  4. Thies KA, Steck S, Knoblaugh SE, Sizemore ST. Pathological Analysis of Lung Metastasis Following Lateral Tail-Vein Injection of Tumor Cells. J Vis Exp. 2020 May 20;(159). doi: 10.3791/61270. Erratum in: J Vis Exp. 2020 Dec 2;(166): PMID: 32510518.

  5. Martínez LE, O’Brien VP, Leverich CK, Knoblaugh SE, Salama NR. Non-helical Helicobacter pylori show altered gland colonization and elicit less gastric pathology during chronic infection. Infect. Immun. 2019; 87:e00904–18.

  6. Knoblaugh, S, Hohl, TM, La Perle, KMD. Pathology principles and practices for analysis of animal models.” ILAR J. 2019; 59(1):40-50. doi: 10.1093/ilar/ilz001.

  7. Loeb KR, Hughes BT, FIssel BM, Osteen NJ, Knoblaugh SE, Grim JE, Drury LJ, Sarver A, Dupuy AJ, Clurman BE. Insertional mutagenesis using the Sleeping Beauty transposon system identifies drivers of erythroleukemia in mice. Sci Rep 2019; 9(1):5488. PubMed PMID: 30940846; PMCID: PMC In Process.

  8. Knoblaugh, SE, & Himmel, LE. Keeping Score: Semiquantitative and Quantitative Scoring Approaches to Genetically Engineered and Xenograft Mouse Models of Cancer. Vet Pathol. 2019; 56(1):24-32. doi: 10.1177/0300985818808526

  9. Cook Sangar ML, Genovesi LA, Nakamoto MW, Davis MJ, Knobluagh SE, Ji P, Millar A, Wainwright BJ, Olson JM. Inhibition of CDK4/6 by Palbociclib Significantly Extends Survival in Medulloblastoma Patient-Derived Xenograft Mouse Models. Clin Cancer Res. 2017; Oct 1;23(19):5802-5813 (cover article). doi: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-16-2943. Epub 2017 Jun 21. PubMed PMID: 28637687.

  10. Frazier JP, Beirne E, Ditzler SH, Tretyak I, Casalini JR, Thirstrup DJ, Knoblaugh S, Ward JG, Tripp CD, Klinghoffer RA. Establishment and characterization of a canine soft tissue sarcoma patient-derived xenograft model. Vet Comp Oncol. 2017; Sep;15(3):754-763. doi: 10.1111/vco.12215. Epub 2016 Mar 18. PubMed PMID: 26991424

  11. Morris SM, Davison J, Carter KT, O'Leary RM, Trobridge P, Knoblaugh SE, Myeroff LL, Markowitz SD, Brett BT, Scheetz TE, Dupuy AJ, Starr TK, Grady WM.Transposon mutagenesis identifies candidate genes that cooperate with loss of transforming growth factor-beta signaling in mouse intestinal neoplasms. Int J Cancer. 2017; 140(4):853-863, PMID 27790711, PMC5316486.

  12. Carouge D, Blanc V, Knoblaugh SE, Hunter RJ, Davidson NO, Nadeau JH. Parent-of-origin effects of A1CF and AGO2 on testicular germ-cell tumors, testicular  abnormalities, and fertilization bias. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(37):E5425-33, PMID 27582469, PMC5027451. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1604773113. Epub 2016 Aug 31.

  13. Schietinger A, Philip M, Krisnawan VE, Chiu EY, Delrow JJ, Basom RS, Lauer P, Brockstedt DG, Knoblaugh SE, Hämmerling GJ, Schell TD, Garbi N, Greenberg PD. Tumor-Specific T Cell Dysfunction Is a Dynamic Antigen-Driven Differentiation Program Initiated Early during Tumorigenesis. Immunity. 2016; 45(2):389-401, PMID 27521269, PMC5119632.

  14. Metz HE, Kargl J, Busch SE, Kim KH, Kurland BF, Abberbock SR, Randolph-Habecker J, Knoblaugh SE, Kolls JK, White MF, Houghton AM. Insulin receptor substrate-1 deficiency drives a proinflammatory phenotype in KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016; 113(31):8795-800, PMID 27439864, PMC4978299.

  15. Baik FM, Hansen S, Knoblaugh SE, Sahetya D, Mitchell RM, Xu C, Parrish-Novak J, Méndez E. Fluorescence Identification of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma and High-Risk Oral Dysplasia With BLZ-100, a Chlorotoxin-Indocyanine Green Conjugate. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2016; 142(4):330-8, PMID 26892902, PMC4972605.

  16. DeCourcy K, Hostnik ET, Lorbach J, Knoblaugh S. Unsedated computed tomography for diagnosis of pelvic canal obstruction in a leopard gecko (Eublepharis macularius). Zoo Wildl Med. 2016 Dec;47(4):1073-1076. PMID: 28080907.

  17. Frost SH, Miller BW, Bäck TA, Santos EB, Hamlin DK, Knoblaugh SE, Frayo SL,   Kenoyer AL, Storb R, Press OW, Wilbur DS, Pagel JM, Sandmaier BM. α- Imaging Confirmed Efficient Targeting of CD45-Positive Cells After 211At-Radioimmunotherapy for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation. Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine. 2015; 56(11):1766-73, PMID 26338894, PMC4675464.

  18. Fidel J, Kennedy KC, Dernell WS, Hansen S, Wiss V, Stroud MR, Molho JI, Knoblaugh SE, Meganck J, Olson JM, Rice B, Parrish-Novak J. Preclinical Validation of the Utility of BLZ-100 in Providing Fluorescence Contrast for Imaging Spontaneous Solid Tumors. Cancer research. 2015; 75(20):4283-91, PMID 26471914, PMC4610180.

  19. Jhingran A, Kasahara S, Shepardson KM, Junecko BA, Heung LJ, Kumasaka DK, Knoblaugh SE, Lin X, Kazmierczak BI, Reinhart TA, Cramer RA, Hohl TM. Compartment-specific and sequential role of MyD88 and CARD9 in chemokine induction and innate defense during respiratory fungal infection. PLoS pathogens.  2015; 11(1):e1004589, PMID 25621893, PMC4306481.

  20. Morris SM, Carter KT, Baek JY, Koszarek A, Yeh MM, Knoblaugh SE, Grady WM. TGF-β signaling alters the pattern of liver tumorigenesis induced by Pten inactivation. Oncogene. 2015; 34(25):3273-82, PMID 25132272, PMC4333137.

  21. Park J, Wicki J, Knoblaugh SE, Chamberlain JS, Lee D. Multi-parametric MRI at 14T for muscular dystrophy mice treated with AAV vector-mediated gene therapy. PloS one. 2015; 10(4):e0124914, PMID 25856443, PMC4391935.

  22. Ngo LY, Kasahara S, Kumasaka DK, Knoblaugh SE, Jhingran A, Hohl TM. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis. J Infect Dis.  2014; 209(1):109-19, PMID 23922372 PMC3864383.

  23. Yu M, Trobridge P, Wang Y, Kanngurn S, Morris SM, Knoblaugh S, Grady WM. Inactivation of TGF-β signaling and loss of PTEN cooperate to induce colon cancer in vivo. Oncogene.2014; 33(12):1538-47, PMID 23604118, PMC3883899.

  24. Jhingran A, Mar KB, Kumasaka DK, Knoblaugh SE, Ngo LY, Segal BH, Iwakura Y, Lowell CA, Hamerman JA, Lin X, Hohl TM. Tracing conidial fate and measuring host cell antifungal activity using a reporter of microbial viability in the lung. Cell reports. 2012; 2 (6):1762-73, PMID 23200858, PMC3712646.

  25. Dey J, Ditzler S, Knoblaugh SE, Hatton BA, Schelter JM, Cleary MA, MechB, Rorke-Adams LB, Olson JM. Distinct Smoothened mutation causes severe cerebellar developmental defects and medulloblastoma in a novel transgenic mouse model.  Mol Cell Biol. 2012; 32(20):4104-15, PMID 22869526, MC3457348.

  26. Lee MJ, Hatton BA, Villavicencio EH, Khanna PC, Friedman SD, Ditzler S, Pullar B, Robison K, White KF, Tunkey C, Leblanc M, Randolph-Habecker J, Knoblaugh SE, Hansen S, Richards A, Wainwright BJ, McGovern K, Olson JM.  Hedgehog pathway inhibitor saridegib (IPI-926) increases lifespan in a mouse medulloblastoma model.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012; 109(20):7859-64, PMID 22550175, PMC3356655.

  27. Grim JE, Knoblaugh SE, Guthrie KA, Hagar A, Swanger J, Hespelt J, Delrow JJ, Small T, Grady WM, Nakayama KI, Clurman BE.  Fbw7 and p53 cooperatively suppress advanced and chromosomally unstable intestinal cancer. Mol Cellular Biol. 2012; 32(11):2160-7, PMID 22473991, PMC3372235.

  28. Morris SM, Baek JY, Koszarek A, Kanngurn S, Knoblaugh SE, Grady WM. TGF-β signaling promotes hepatocarcinogenes is induced by p53 loss. Hepatology. 2012; 55(1):121-31, PMID 21898503, PMC3237853.

  29. Lee MJ, Veiseh O, Bhattarai N, Sun C, Hansen SJ, Ditzler S, Knoblaugh S, Lee D, Ellenbogen R, Zhang M, Olson JM. Rapid pharmacokinetic and biodistribution studies using chlorotoxin-conjugated iron oxide nanoparticles: a novel non-radioactive method. PLoS ONE. 2010; 5(3): e9536, PMID 20209052, PMC2832013.

  30. Kelly-Spratt, KS, Philipp-Staheli, J, Gurley, KE, Hoon-Kim, K., Knoblaugh, S, and Kemp, CJ.  Inhibition of P13K restores nuclear p27(Kip1) expression in a mouse model of Kras-driven lung cancer.  Oncogene. 2009; 28(41):3652-62, PMID 19648963, PMC2842079.

  31. Trobridge, P, Knoblaugh, S, Washington, MK, Munoz, NM,  Tsuchiya, KD, Royas, A, Song, X, Ulrich, C, Sasazuki, T, Shirasawa, S, Grady, W. TGF-β receptor inactivation and mutant K-ras induce intestinal neoplasms in mice via a β-catenin independent pathway. Gastroenterology.2009;136(5):1680-8, PMID 19208363,  PMC2782436.

  32. Goodman, AG, Fornek JL, Medigeshi GR, Perrone LA, Peng X, Dymer MD, Proll SC, Knoblaugh SE, Carter VS, Korth MJ, Nelson JA, Tumpey TM, and Katze MG. P58(IPK): a novel "CIHD" member of the host innate defense response against pathogenic virus infection. PLoS Pathog. 2009; 5(5):e1000438, PMID 19461876, PMC2677460.

  33. Sutherland, B, Knoblaugh, SE, Kaplan-Lefko, P, Wang, F, Holzenberger, M, Greenberg, N. Conditional Deletion of Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 Receptor in Prostate Epithelium. Cancer Res. 2008; 68:3495-3504, PMID 18451178.

  34. Hatton, B, Villavicencio, E, Tsuchiya, K, Pritchard, J, Ditzler, S, Pullar, B, Hansen,S, Knoblaugh, S, Lee, D, Eberhart, C, Olson, JM. The Smo/Smo mouse model: hedgehog-induced medulloblastoma with 90% incidence and leptomeningeal spread. Cancer Research. 2008; 68:1768-1776, PMID 18339857.

  35. Bretz, C, Gersuk, G, Knoblaugh, S, Chaudhary, N, Randolph-Habecker, J, Hackman, RC, Staab J, Marr, K. MyD88 signaling contributes to early pulmonary responses to Aspergilllus fumigatus. Infection and Immunity. 2008; 76:952–958, PMID 18039832, PMC2258799.

  36. Keel, S, Doty, R,Yang, Z, Quigley, J, Chen, J, Knoblaugh, S, Kingsley, P, De Domenico,  I, Vaughn,  M, Kaplan,  J, Palis, J, Abkowitz, J.  A Heme Export Protein Is Required for Red Cell Differentiation and Iron Homeostasis. Science. 2008; 319:825-828, PMID 18258918.

  37. Guerra, N, Tan, Y, Joncker. N, Choy, A, Gallardo, F, Xiong, N, Knoblaugh, S, Cado, D, Greenberg, NM,  Raulet, DH.  NKG2D-Deficient Mice Are Defective in Tumor Surveillance in Models of Spontaneous Malignancy.  Immunity. 2008; 28:571-580, PMID 18394936, PMC3528789.

  38. Moore, G., Knoblaugh, S, Gollahon, K., Rabinovitch, P., Ladiges, W. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in Wrn null mice fed a diabetogenic diet. Mechanisms of Ageing and Development.2008; 129:201-206, PMID 18295300, PMC2706000.

  39. Treuting PM, Linford NJ, Knoblaugh SE, Emond MJ, Morton JF, Martin GM, Rabinovitch PS, Ladiges WC. Reduction of age-associated pathology in old mice by overexpression of catalase in mitochondria. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008; 63(8):813-22, PMID 18772469.

  40. Ladiges WC, Knoblaugh SE, Morton JF, Korth MJ, Sopher BL, Baskin CR, MacAuley A, Goodman AG, LeBoeuf RC, Katze MG. Pancreatic ß cell failure and diabetes in mice with a deletion mutation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response gene P58IPK. Diabetes. 2005; 54:1074-1081, PMID 15793246.


  1. Knoblaugh, S, Adissu, H, McKerlie, C, Cardiff, R. “Male Reproductive System”. In Pathology of Genetically Engineered and Other Mutant Mice. (1st ed.). Ward, J, Sundberg, J, Vogel, P, (Eds.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell: pp. 431-461, 2021.

  2. Knoblaugh SE and Randolph-Habecker J. Necropsy and Histology. In: Treuting PM, Dintzis SM, eds. Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse, Rat, and Human Atlas (2nd ed.). London, UK: Academic Press:21–51, 2018.
  3. Knoblaugh, SE, True, L, Tretiakova, M, Hukkanen, RR. Male Reproductive System. In: Treuting PM, Dintzis SM, eds. Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse, Rat, and Human Atlas (2nd ed.). London, UK: Academic Press; 2018: 335-362.
  4. Knoblaugh, S, Randolph-Habecker, J, Rath, S, Necropsy and Histology, in Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse and Human Atlas. P. Treuting and S. Dintzis, (Eds.), Elsevier (Academic Press): London, pp. 15-40, 2012.
  5. Knoblaugh, S, True, L, Male Reproductive System, in Comparative Anatomy and Histology: A Mouse and Human Atlas. P. Treuting and S. Dintzis, (Eds.), Elsevier (Academic Press): London, pp.285-308, 2012.
  6. Rubin C, Knoblaugh S, Ladiges W. Phenotypic Characterization of Genetically Engineered Laboratory Animals. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science, Vol.1: Selection and Handling of Animals in Biomedical Research. Van Hoosier et al., (Eds.). 10:206-232, 2003.


  1. Knoblaugh, SE. (2015). Review of Mouse Models of Cancer, A Laboratory Manual by C. Abate-Shen. K. Politi L.A. Chodosh, K.P. Olive, (Eds.). Vet Pathol March 2015 52: 427, doi:10.1177/0300985814566403